Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Accounting Policies

Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Accounting Policies


Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Estimates and assumptions principally relate to estimates of contingent considerations, the initial fair value and forfeiture rates of stock options issued to employees and consultants, the estimated compensation cost on performance restricted stock unit awards, clinical trial and manufacturing accruals, estimated useful lives of property, plant, equipment and intangible assets, estimates and assumptions in contingent liabilities.

Cash Equivalents

We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents, which we consider as available for sale and carry at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, if any, reported as accumulated other comprehensive income or loss, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity.

Fair value of financial instruments

Other financial instruments including accounts payable, accrued liabilities other, accrued clinical liabilities and accrued compensation are carried at cost, which we believe approximates fair value because of the short-term maturities of these instruments.

Intellectual Property

The costs of acquiring intellectual property rights to be used in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, are charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where we have not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where we have identified an alternative future use. No costs associated with acquiring intellectual property rights have been capitalized to date. Costs of maintaining intellectual property rights are expensed as incurred.

Intangible Assets

Our intangible assets are subject to amortization and are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. We evaluate the carrying amount of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired.


Goodwill acquired in a business combination is assigned to the reporting unit that is expected to benefit from the combination as of the acquisition date. Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis or, more frequently, if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit.

Sopharma Share Purchase Agreement Contingent Consideration

We may be required to pay future contingent consideration to Sopharma, AD as part of the Share Purchase Agreement, which is contingent upon obtaining regulatory approval of cytisinicline by the FDA or the EMA.We determine the fair value of the contingent consideration using a probability based discounted cash flow approach whereby we forecast the timing of the cash flow of the related future payment based on cytisinicline's current clinical development phase and the remaining requirements for regulatory approval. We then discount the expected payment amount to calculate the present value and then apply a probability of success in obtaining regulatory approval as of the valuation date. We evaluate the underlying projection used in determining the fair value each period and make updates as necessary.

The significant assumptions we use to value the contingent consideration are the forecasted timing of the future payment, the risk-adjusted discount rate and the probability of success which are all considered significant unobservable inputs, and as such, the liability is classified as a Level 3 measurement. The risk-adjusted discount rate is adjusted for credit risk. An increase in the discount rate or decrease in the probability of success would result in a decrease in the fair value of the contingent consideration. Conversely, a decrease in the discount rate or increase in the probability of success would result in an increase in the fair value of the contingent consideration.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment assets are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense on assets acquired under capital lease is recorded within depreciation expense. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the following periods:

Computer equipment


3 years

Furniture and fixtures


5 years

Machinery and equipment


5 - 10 years

Leasehold improvements and equipment under capital lease


Over the term of the lease

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets


We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset’s carrying amount may not be recoverable. We conduct our long-lived asset impairment analyses in accordance with ASC 360-10-15, “Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets.” ASC 360-10-15 requires us to group assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities and evaluate the asset group against the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows. If the undiscounted cash flows do not indicate the carrying amount of the asset is recoverable, an impairment charge is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value based on discounted cash flow analysis or appraisals.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases and for operating losses and tax credit carry forwards. A valuation allowance is provided for the portion of deferred tax assets that is more likely than not to be unrealized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws.

Government Grants

We account for government grants by recognizing the benefit of the grant as qualifying expenditures are incurred provided that there is reasonable assurance that we have complied with all conditions under the terms of the grant and that the amount requested for reimbursement will be received. The government grant reduces the research and development, or R&D, expenses to which it relates on our statement of profit and loss.

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, net of related refundable investment tax credits, with the exception of non-refundable advance payments for goods or services to be used in future research and development, which are capitalized in accordance with ASC 730, “Research and Development” and included within Prepaid Expenses or Other Assets depending on when the assets will be utilized.

Clinical trial expenses are a component of research and development costs. These expenses include fees paid to contract research organizations and investigators and other service providers, which conduct certain product development activities on our behalf. We use an accrual basis of accounting, based upon estimates of the amount of service completed. In the event payments differ from the amount of service completed, prepaid expense or accrued liabilities amounts are adjusted on the balance sheet. These expenses are based on estimates of the work performed under service agreements, milestones achieved, patient enrollment and experience with similar contracts. We monitor each of these factors to the extent possible and adjust estimates accordingly.

Stock-Based Compensation

Under the fair value recognition provisions of the ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” we use the modified prospective method with respect to options granted to employees and directors. The expense is amortized on a straight-line basis over the graded vesting period.

Restricted Stock Unit Awards

We grant restricted stock unit awards that generally vest and are expensed over a four-year period. We also granted restricted stock unit awards that vest in conjunction with certain performance conditions to certain executive officers and key employees. At each reporting date, we evaluate whether achievement of the performance conditions is probable. Compensation expense is recorded over the appropriate service period based upon our assessment of accomplishing each performance provision or the occurrence of other events that may have caused the awards to accelerate and vest.

Segment Information

We follow the requirements of ASC 280, “Segment Reporting.” We have one operating segment, dedicated to the development and commercialization of cytisinicline for nicotine addiction, with operations located in Canada, the United States and the U.K.

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) consists of unrealized gains and losses on our available-for-sale marketable securities. We report the components of comprehensive loss in the statement of stockholders’ equity.

Loss per Common Share

Basic loss per common share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per common share is computed in accordance with the treasury stock method. The effect of potentially issuable common shares from outstanding stock options, restricted stock unit awards and warrants are anti-dilutive for all periods presented.


We account for warrants pursuant to the authoritative guidance on accounting for derivative financial instruments indexed to, and potentially settled in, a company’s own stock, on the understanding that in compliance with applicable securities laws, the warrants require the issuance of registered securities upon exercise and therefore do not sufficiently preclude an implied right to net cash settlement. We have warrants classified as equity and these are not reassessed for their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Warrants classified as equity are initially measured at their fair value and recognized as part of stockholders’ equity. Determining the appropriate fair-value model and calculating the fair value of registered warrants requires considerable judgment, including estimating stock price volatility and expected warrant life. The computation of expected volatility was based on the historical volatility of comparable companies from a representative peer group selected based on industry and market capitalization. A small change in the estimates used may have a relatively large change in the estimated valuation. We use the Black-Scholes pricing model to value the warrants.

Reporting Currency and Foreign Currency Translation

Our functional and reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Revenues and expenses denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at average monthly rates.

The functional currency of our foreign subsidiary is the U.S. dollar. For this foreign operation, assets and liabilities denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at the period-end rates for monetary assets and liabilities and historical rates for non-monetary

assets and liabilities. Revenues and expenses denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at average monthly rates. Gains and losses from this translation are recognized in the consolidated statement of loss and comprehensive loss.

Recent Accounting Standards

In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, which is intended to provide enhanced segment disclosures. The standard will require disclosures about significant segment expenses and other segment items and identifying the Chief Operating Decision Maker and how they use the reported segment profitability measures to assess segment performance and allocate resources. These enhanced disclosures are required for all entities on an interim and annual basis, even if they have only a single reportable segment. The standard is effective for years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024 and early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating this standard to determine if adoption will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09 “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures”. This guidance is intended to enhance the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures. The amendments in ASU 2023-09 address investor requests for enhanced income tax information primarily through changes to disclosure regarding rate reconciliation and income taxes paid both in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions. ASU 2023-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 on a prospective basis, with the option to apply the standard retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating this standard to determine if adoption will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.