|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
2. ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Estimates and assumptions principally relate to estimates of the initial fair value and forfeiture rates of stock options issued to employees and consultants, the estimated compensation cost on performance restricted stock unit awards, clinical trial and manufacturing accruals, estimated useful lives of property, plant, equipment and intangible assets, estimates and assumptions in contingent liabilities.
We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents, which we consider as available for sale and carry at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, if any, reported as accumulated other comprehensive income or loss, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity.
Fair value of financial instruments
Other financial instruments including accounts payable, accrued liabilities other, accrued clinical liabilities and accrued compensation are carried at cost, which we believe approximates fair value because of the short-term maturities of these instruments.
The costs of acquiring intellectual property rights to be used in the research and development process, including licensing fees and milestone payments, are charged to research and development expense as incurred in situations where we have not identified an alternative future use for the acquired rights, and are capitalized in situations where we have identified an alternative future use. No costs associated with acquiring intellectual property rights have been capitalized to date. Costs of maintaining intellectual property rights are expensed as incurred.
Our intangible assets are subject to amortization and are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. We evaluate the carrying amount of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired.
Goodwill acquired in a business combination is assigned to the reporting unit that is expected to benefit from the combination as of the acquisition date. Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis or, more frequently, if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment assets are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense on assets acquired under capital lease is recorded within depreciation expense. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the following periods:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset’s carrying amount may not be recoverable. We conduct our long-lived asset impairment analyses in accordance with ASC 360-10-15, “Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets.” ASC 360-10-15 requires us to group assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities and evaluate the asset group against the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows. If the undiscounted cash flows do not indicate the carrying amount of the asset is recoverable, an impairment charge is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value based on discounted cash flow analysis or appraisals.
Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases and for operating losses and tax credit carry forwards. A valuation allowance is provided for the portion of deferred tax assets that is more likely than not to be unrealized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws.
We account for government grants by recognizing the benefit of the grant as qualifying expenditures are incurred provided that there is reasonable assurance that we have complied with all conditions under the terms of the grant and that the amount requested for reimbursement will be received. The government grant reduces the research and development, or R&D, expenses to which it relates on our statement of profit and loss.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, net of related refundable investment tax credits, with the exception of non-refundable advance payments for goods or services to be used in future research and development, which are capitalized in accordance with ASC 730, “Research and Development” and included within Prepaid Expenses or Other Assets depending on when the assets will be utilized.
Clinical trial expenses are a component of research and development costs. These expenses include fees paid to contract research organizations and investigators and other service providers, which conduct certain product development activities on our behalf. We use an accrual basis of accounting, based upon estimates of the amount of service completed. In the event payments differ from the amount of service completed, prepaid expense or accrued liabilities amounts are adjusted on the balance sheet. These expenses are based on estimates of the work performed under service agreements, milestones achieved, patient enrollment and experience with similar contracts. We monitor each of these factors to the extent possible and adjust estimates accordingly.
Under the fair value recognition provisions of the ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” we use the modified prospective method with respect to options granted to employees and directors. The expense is amortized on a straight-line basis over the graded vesting period.
Restricted Stock Unit Awards
We grant restricted stock unit awards that generally vest and are expensed over aperiod. We also granted restricted stock unit awards that vest in conjunction with certain performance conditions to certain executive officers and key employees. At each reporting date, we evaluate whether achievement of the performance conditions is probable. Compensation expense is recorded over the appropriate service period based upon our assessment of accomplishing each performance provision or the occurrence of other events that may have caused the awards to accelerate and vest.
We follow the requirements of ASC 280, “Segment Reporting.” We have one operating segment, dedicated to the development and commercialization of cytisinicline for nicotine addiction, with operations located in Canada, the United States and the U.K.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) consists of unrealized gains and losses on our available-for-sale marketable securities. We report the components of comprehensive loss in the statement of stockholders’ equity.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per common share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per common share is computed in accordance with the treasury stock method. The effect of potentially issuable common shares from outstanding stock options, restricted stock unit awards and warrants are anti-dilutive for all periods presented.
We account for warrants pursuant to the authoritative guidance on accounting for derivative financial instruments indexed to, and potentially settled in, a company’s own stock, on the understanding that in compliance with applicable securities laws, the warrants require the issuance of registered securities upon exercise and therefore do not sufficiently preclude an implied right to net cash settlement. We have warrants classified as equity and these are not reassessed for their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Warrants classified as equity are initially measured at their fair value and recognized as part of stockholders’ equity. Determining the appropriate fair-value model and calculating the fair value of registered warrants requires considerable judgment, including estimating stock price volatility and expected warrant life. The computation of expected volatility was based on the historical volatility of comparable companies from a representative peer group selected based on industry and market capitalization. A small change in the estimates used may have a relatively large change in the estimated valuation. We use the Black-Scholes pricing model to value the warrants.
Reporting Currency and Foreign Currency Translation
Our functional and reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Revenues and expenses denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at average monthly rates.
The functional currency of our foreign subsidiary is the U.S. dollar. For this foreign operation, assets and liabilities denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at the period-end rates for monetary assets and liabilities and historical rates for non-monetary assets and liabilities. Revenues and expenses denominated in other than U.S. dollars are translated at average monthly rates. Gains and losses from this translation are recognized in the consolidated statement of loss and comprehensive loss.
Recently Adopted Accounting Policies
In February 2016, the FASB established Topic 842, Leases, by issuing Accounting Standards Update ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use, or ROU, model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases were classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss.
We adopted the standard on the effective date of January 1, 2019 and elected to use the modified retrospective method. Consequently, financial information will not be updated, and the disclosures required under the new standard will not be provided for dates and periods before January 1, 2019. We elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, we will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. We also elected the available practical expedients and implemented internal controls to enable the preparation of financial information on adoption.
The standard had a material impact on our consolidated balance sheets, but did not have an impact on our consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets, of $0.5 million, and lease liabilities, of $0.5 million, for operating leases, while our accounting for finance leases remained substantially unchanged.
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement, which both modifies and clarifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement. This update is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard did not have a significant impact on our financial position or results of operations.
In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, or ASU 2020-06. ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments, the accounting for contracts in an entity’s own equity, and the related earnings per share calculations. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 and early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of an interim period for which financial statements (interim or annual) have not been issued or have not been made available for issuance.
We elected to early adopt the standard effective in 2021. The adoption of this standard did not have any impact on our prior period financial statements.
As a result of adopting ASU 2020-06, we are not required to separately record the conversion feature of the convertible debt but instead account for the convertible instrument and conversion feature as a single unit of debt.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef