Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Accounting Policies

Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Accounting Policies


The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. We have discussed those estimates that we believe are critical and require the use of complex judgment in their application in our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, on March 14, 2019. Since December 31, 2018, there have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies or the methodologies or assumptions we apply under them.

Recently Adopted Accounting Policies

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which guidance in this update will supersede the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance when it becomes effective. ASU No. 2014-09 affects any entity that enters into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services or enters into contracts for the transfer of nonfinancial assets unless those contracts are within the scope of other standards. The core principal of ASU No. 2014-09 is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies will need to use more judgment and make more estimates than under current guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. ASU No. 2014-09 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period, which will be our fiscal year 2018 (or December 31, 2018), and entities can transition to the standard either retrospectively or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. Early adoption is permitted. We have updated our policies and procedures to reflect the adoption of ASU No. 2014-09. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on our financial position or results of operations.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. Some of the areas for simplification apply only to nonpublic entities. For public business entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after 15 December 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a significant impact on our financial position or results of operations.


In February 2016, the FASB established Topic 842, Leases, by issuing Accounting Standards Update ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use, or ROU, model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases were classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss.


We elected to adopt the standard on the effective date of January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective method. Consequently, financial information will not be updated and the disclosures required under the new standard will not be provided for dates and periods before January 1, 2019. We elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, we will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. We also elected the available practical expedients and implemented internal controls to enable the preparation of financial information on adoption.


The standard had a material impact on our consolidated balance sheets, but did not have an impact on our consolidated statements of loss and comprehensive loss. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases, while our accounting for finance leases remained substantially unchanged.